Domicile of Thai people

    Four principal Thai people, by J. Deniker(1), may be distinguished in this territory: the Thos Muang in the north-east (Tong King and China), the Shans in the north-west (Upper Burma), the Laotians in the south-east and the Siamese in the south-west (Thailand).
    Deniker put together, under the name of Thos-Muang, all the natives of Upper Tong King and the Tong King hinterland (except the Mountain summits occupied by the Mans, allied probably to the Lo-lo), as well as the primitive inhabitants of Kwang-si, Southern Kwei-chow, and Eastern Yunnan. They are husbandmen, living in houses on piles, and wearing a very picturesque costume different from that of their ancient msters the Annamese. The Muongs of Tong King to the west of the Red River (basin of the Black River), the Pueun and the Pu-Thai of Annamese Loas resemble them both in type and in language which is a Thai dialect very much altered by Chinese and Annamese.
    The Tu-jen, the Pe-miao, the Pa-i, forming twothirds of the population of Kwang-si, and found in the south of Kwei-chow and the north-west of Kwangtung, as well as the Pe-jen or MinKia of Yunnan, are Thos slightly crossed with Chinese blood in the same way as the Nongs of Tong King, the neighbours of the Thos. Most of these peoples have a special kind of writing, recalling that of the Laotians. The latter, as well as the Shans, differ somewhat from the Thos in regard to type, in which we may discern interminglings with the Indonesians, Malays, Mois, and Burmese.
    Among the Shans we must distinguish the Khamti, a very pure race, and the Sing-po with the Kackyen or Katchin: somewhat intermixed with the Burmese, both of them races of mountaineers of the northern parts of Upper Burma, between the Lu-Kiang (Upper Salween) and the Lohit-Brahmaputra. The upper valley of the latter river is inhabited by the Assamese or Ahoms, cross-breeds between the Shans and Hindus.

Les Thais(2), c'est-a-dire tous les gens parlent, ecrivent ou comprennent la langue thaie avec de legeres differences, soit dans la prononciation, soit dans la construction des mots, dans l'orthographe et dans l'eciture.
Cette race se subdivise en plusieurs types ou varietes qui sont:
  1. Les Laotiens (ou Lao ou Phou-Lao).
  2. Les Phou-Thais.
  3. Les Thais-Khao.
  4. Les Thais-Dam.
  5. Les Thais-Deng.
  6. Les Thais-Neua.
  7. Les Phou-Eunes.
  8. Les Youns.
  9. Les Lus.
Le Laotien est de tous les Thais celui qui s'est conserve le plus pur, avec toutefois une proportion de sang aryen beaucoup plus considerable que dans les autres varietes, exception faite pour les Lus.
Langue phouthaie.- Le phouthai, au contraire, et nous parlons ici de celui que l'on ecrit et que l'on entend parlar actuellement, serait pluot, au point de vue graphique, une forme primitive du thai. Ceci est du sans doute a l'usage et aussi purement curement curvilignes qu'avec la pointe seche. le style de bois, la plume ou le crayon, qui sont les seuls instrumente employes pour les autres varietes de la langue thaie.
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  1. THE RACES OF MAN, by J. Deniker, Sc.D. (Paris), Chief Librarian of the Museum of Natural History, Paris, Page 401.
  2. LE LAOS, Par Lucien de Reinach, Ancien Commissaire du Gouvernement du Laos, Page 119-216.
  3. THE TAI RACE RESEARCH, by Luang Vichitvatrakran, Colonel, Bangkok, Thailand, 1969